Microsoft Access Financial Cash Flow Calculations with Total Access Statistics
Microsoft Access does not include
financial functions to analyze cash flow
data in your tables. Performing such
calculations has been quite challenging for MS
Access users and developers. Fortunately,
Total Access Statistics performs a wide
range of cash flow analysis:
 Use discounted cash flows to generate Net Present Value (NPV), Present
Value (FV), Future Value (FV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR)
for periodic and date dependent payments and receipts
 Analyze the data in your Access
tables and queries (including linked
data)
 Support grouping on field values so
you can perform multiple analyses in one
pass
 Generate results in Access tables that
you can use in your queries, forms, and
reports
Best of all, by using a database approach
with support for groupings, calculations for
each group of records is automatically
generated making it far more powerful than
performing the calculations in Microsoft
Excel. Since the results are in Access
tables, you can add them to your forms and
reports.
Financial Calculations were added to
Total Access Statistics for Microsoft Access
2010, and X.8 versions for Access 2007 and
earlier.
Financial Analysis Overview
If you have a table with records
containing your cash flow information, Total
Access Statistics can perform the financial
analysis you seek. Easily calculate
discounted values and returns for a series
of cash flow investments and receipts.
Negative values are considered investments
(payments) and positive values are receipts
(returns).
Two Financial scenario types are
available depending on whether your data
represents Periodic or Irregular cash flows:

Periodic Cash Flows
Each record is a cash flow payment or
receipt that is identically separated in
time from each other (for instance,
annual or monthly transactions), but the
amount may vary for each period.

Irregular Cash Flows (Date
Dependent)
Each record has a date field for its
cash flow payment or receipt which may
not be evenly spaced over time. The
amounts may also vary with each record.
The simplest and most common cash flow
analysis is based on periodic transactions.
Payments or receipts can vary in size but
occur on a regular schedule. Most common
intervals are annual, monthly, and
quarterly. Depending on the frequency of
your cash flows, you’d enter the appropriate
interest rate for each period.
The following field selection screen
appears for Periodic Cash Flows:
The Value Fields contain the cash
flow data. Each field you selected is
analyzed separately. The values in the field
should be negative for payments (investments
or outflows), and positive for receipts
(returns or inflows).
Group Fields let you generate a
separate set of analysis for each
combination of unique values among the group
fields.
The Sort Field is used to ensure
your cash flows are sorted properly. This
may be the AutoNumber field of your table or
another field that can be used to ensure
Total Access Statistics processes each cash
flow in the right order. It is critical that
your cash flows be in the right order.
If no group field is specified, the Sort
Field is not required and Total Access
Statistics analyzes your records in their
natural order, which may or may not be okay.
You need to verify this.
You can optionally specify a Weight
Field which can be used in situations
where you have a field for the receipt
amount and another weighting field that
specifies the quantity of those receipts.
Periodic Cash Flow Options
After selecting the fields, the Periodic
options are presented:
Cash flow timing for each time period
For Cash Flow analysis, it’s important to
determine whether the first item represents
an event at the beginning of the time period
or at the end of the time period. For instance,
if your initial investment (a negative
number) occurs on Day 1, choose the
Beginning option. If the first investment
occurs at the end of the first year, choose
End.
The implication of this selection can be
most easily understood with the first
investment. If it’s at the beginning of the
period, the first cash flow is not
discounted since there hasn’t been any time
to apply the interest rate. If it’s at the
end, it is adjusted by the discount rate.
Net Present Value (NPV)
Net Present Value is the current value of
a future series of payments and receipts and
a way to measure the time value of money.
Basically, money today is worth more than
money tomorrow. And future money is
discounted by the interest rate you specify.
Assuming cash flows occur at the end of
each period, an NPV with a 10% discount rate
would divide the cash flow of period 1 by (1
+ 10%) then add the cash flow in period 2
divided by (1 + 10%) ^2, etc. The NPV calculation ends with the last
cash flow. The formula for NPV is:
where N is the number of periods, n is a
specific period, C is the cash flow for a
particular period and r is the discount rate
for each period.
Set the Discount Rate to Your Time
Interval
The discount rate you enter must
correspond to the period of time between
each cash flow. For periodic cash flow
analysis, Total Access Statistics does not
have date information on when the events
occur.
If it’s monthly, you should use 1/12th of
your annual rate, for quarterly onefourth,
etc. For most accurate results, take the n^{th}
root of your annual discount rate to capture
the compounding effect.
Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
The Internal Rate of Return is used to
measure an investment's attractiveness. It
is the interest rate that makes the NPV
equal to zero for the series of cash flows.
At least one negative payment and one
positive receipt are required to calculate
IRR. If this doesn’t exist, the result is
null.
IRR is sometimes called the discounted
cash flow rate of return, rate of return,
and effective interest rate. The “internal”
term signifies the rate is independent of
outside interest rates.
Depending on the number of cash flows and
their values, IRR can require many
iterations to generate an accurate result.
Microsoft Excel stops after 20 tries. Total
Access Statistics generates its standard
level of double precision accuracy and will
do so for up to 1000 iterations.
Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR)
Modified Internal Rate of Return is used
to measure an investment's attractiveness.
MIRR is a modification of the IRR
calculation and resolves some problems with
the IRR.
IRR assumes that positive cash flows are
reinvested at the same rate of return as
that of the investment. This is unlikely as
funds are reinvested at a rate closer to the
organization’s cost of capital or return on
cash. The IRR therefore often gives an
overly optimistic rate of the cash flows.
For comparing projects more accurately, the
cost of capital should be used for
reinvesting the interim cash flows.
Additionally, for projects with
alternating positive and negative cash
flows, more than one IRR may be found, which
may lead to confusion.
To use MIRR, provide the two interest
rates:
 Finance Rate: the cost of capital
 Reinvestment Rate: the interest
received for cash investments
Similar to the discount rate provided for
NPV, these rates should be the rate for each
period and not the annual rates if your
periods are not yearly. The formula for MIRR is:
where n is the number of equal periods at
the end of which the cash flows occur (not
the number of cash flows), PV is present
value (at the beginning of the first
period), FV is future value (at the end of
the last period).
MIRR sums the discounted negative cash
flows to the starting time, and sums the
positive cash flows to the final period
adjusting for the reinvestment rate. By
dividing and taking the n^{th}
root, it
determines the rate of return for the
positive and negative cash flows.
Note that in Excel or VBA, the MIRR
function always assumes the cash flows are
at the beginning of the period. If you want
to use the End of period option in Total
Access Statistics and compare it to Excel,
add an extra cash flow of zero to the
beginning of the Excel data set.
Periodic Cash Flow Output Table
Periodic Cash Flow analysis is performed
for each value field:
Example of Periodic Cash Flow Analysis
Results in a Microsoft Access table
Periodic Cash Flow Output Fields
These fields are calculated for all periodic
cash flow analysis:
Group Fields 
Group fields selected (if any) 
DataField 
Field name identifying the
data in the record 
Count (N) 
Number of records in the group 
Missing 
Records with missing values 
FirstCashFlow 
Value of the first cash flow 
LastCashFlow 
Value of the last cash flow 
Sum 
Sum of the values (profit) 
SumNegative 
Sum of the negative cash flows
(values less than zero) 
SumPositive 
Sum of the positive cash flows
(values greater than zero) 
Rate 
The discount rate you specified for
each period 
FV 
The Future Value of the cash flows at the
end of the last period 
NPV 
Net Present Value of the discounted cash
flows 
IRR 
Internal Rate of Return 
MIRR 
Modified Internal Rate of Return 
RateFinance 
The periodic finance rate you
specified 
RateReinvest 
The periodic reinvestment rate
you specified 
MIRRPV 
The present value of the negative
cash flows discounted by the finance rate

MIRRFV 
The future value of the positive
cash flow discounted by the reinvestment
rate 
As with all other values generated by Total
Access Statistics, the rates (percentages)
are shown as a decimal value between 0 and 1
(e.g. 5% is 0.05).
Irregular Cash Flow analysis is similar
to Periodic Cash Flow analysis, except the
timing of individual cash flows is taken
into account.
Periodic analysis assumes the same amount
of time between each cash flow. For
situations where you have dates associated
with each cash flow, the irregular cash flow
analysis will provide a more accurate
result.
Irregular Cash Flow Field Selection
The following field selection screen
appears when you choose Irregular Cash Flow
analysis:
Irregular Cash Flows Field Selection
This is similar to the selection for
Periodic Cash Flows, except a Date
Field is required to identify the timing
of each cash flow.
Irregular Cash Flow Options
After selecting the fields, the Irregular
options are presented:
Number of Days in Year
To adjust the interest rate to apply to
cash flows between two dates, the annual
interest rate needs to be divided by the
number of days in a year.
365 days is the most common selection but
if your cash flows span over multiple years,
using 365.25 to adjust for leap year is more
accurate. The difference of course is rather
small.
Net Present Value (XNPV)
Net Present Value is the current value of
a future series of payments and receipts and
a way to measure the time value of money.
This is identical to what’s calculated in
the Periodic cash flow analysis. The
difference in the irregular cash flow
analysis is that each cash flow is adjusted
by the overall annual discount rate based on
the date it occurs. NPV where dates are
taken into account is called XNPV.
Unlike the periodic cash flow analysis
where you specify the discount rate for each
period, the discount rate for irregular cash flow analysis is
always the annual rate.
Internal Rate of Return (XIRR)
The Internal Rate of Return is the
interest rate that makes the NPV equal to
zero for the series of cash flows. At least
one negative payment and one positive
receipt are required to calculate IRR. If
this doesn’t exist, the result is null.
This is identical to what’s calculated in
the periodic cash flow analysis. The
difference in the irregular cash flow
analysis is that each cash flow is specific
to the date it occurs. IRR where dates are
taken into account is called XIRR.
Modified Internal Rate of Return (XMIRR)
MIRR is a modification of the IRR
calculation and is a more accurate
reflection of the true rate of return for a
series of cash flows. MIRR where dates are
taken into account is called XMIRR. To
calculate XMIRR, provide the two interest
rates:
 Finance Rate: the cost of capital
 Reinvestment Rate: the interest
received for cash investments
Unlike periodic cash flows, the rates for
irregular cash flows are always the annual
rate.
Irregular NonPeriodic Cash Flow Output Table
Irregular NonPeriodic Cash Flow analysis is performed
for each value field:
Example of NonPeriodic Cash Flow Analysis
Results in a Microsoft Access table
Interactive Wizard and VBA Programmatic
Interfaces
Total Access Statistics lets you interactively generate
your calculations through its
wizard interface to easily select the data
source, fields, and analysis without
programming. After you specify your
selections, they are automatically saved as
a scenario in your database so you can run
them again in the future when your data
changes.
A VBA
statistics function is also available so
you can generate these results
from code. You can easily run any saved
scenario by calling a single procedure in
the Total Access Statistics VBA library. The
library includes a royaltyfree runtime
license so you can include it with your
Access database and distribute it to
nonTotal Access Statistics owners.
Call the function from a button's OnClick
event or other process, and the results are
generated for you. You can even hide the
builtin user interface so your users don't
even know Total Access Statistics is
running. They'll be amazed with your
statistical analysis capabilities!
Additional Details of Calculations Available in Total Access Statistics
Here are some additional resources and details about some of the data
analysis you can perform on your Microsoft Access data with Total Access
Statistics:
 Financial Cash Flow Calculations
Use discounted cash flows and interest rates to generate Net Present Value (NPV), Present Value
(PV), Future Value (FV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Modified Internal Rate of Return (MIRR)
for periodic and date dependent payments and receipts.

Percentile Calculations
Calculate different types of percentiles: median, quartiles, quintiles,
octiles, deciles, percentiles, every X.5 percentile, and place them in a
table or update an existing field with the record's percentile value.

Running Totals and Moving Averages
Summarize a moving set of records to calculate running sums, moving
averages, minimum, maximum, range, median, standard deviation, etc.

Data Normalization (Data Transpose)
Transpose nonnormalized data so you can easily analyze and maintain it.

Regressions
Simple, multiple and polynomial regressions with calculation of equation
coefficients, ANOVA and residual table

Crosstabs and ChiSquare
Advanced crosstabulations with percentage of row, column and totals
displayed as records or columns